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Download e-book for kindle: A brief history of time : from the big bang to black holes by S W Hawking

By S W Hawking

ISBN-10: 0553052438

ISBN-13: 9780553052435

ISBN-10: 055305340X

ISBN-13: 9780553053401

A quick heritage of Time, released in 1988, was once a landmark quantity in technology writing and in world-wide acclaim and recognition, with greater than nine million copies in print globally. the unique version used to be at the innovative of what used to be then identified in regards to the origins and nature of the universe. however the resulting years have visible awesome advances within the expertise of staring at either the micro- and the macrocosmic world--observations that experience proven lots of Hawking's theoretical predictions within the first version of his book.Now a decade later, this version updates the chapters all through to rfile these advances, and likewise contains a wholly new bankruptcy on Wormholes and Time shuttle and a brand new advent. It make vividly transparent why a quick historical past of Time has reworked our view of the universe

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Additional resources for A brief history of time : from the big bang to black holes

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It is perhaps ironic that, having changed my mind, I am now trying to convince other physicists that there was in fact no singularity at the beginning of the universe – as we shall see later, it can disappear once quantum effects are taken into account. We have seen in this chapter how, in less than half a century, man’s view of the universe formed over millennia has been transformed. Hubble’s discovery that the universe was expanding, and the realization of the insignificance of our own planet in the vastness of the universe, were just the starting point.

Landau pointed out that there was another possible final state for a star, also with a limiting mass of about one or two times the mass of the sun but much smaller even than a white dwarf. These stars would be supported by the exclusion principle repulsion between neutrons and protons, rather than between electrons. They were therefore called neutron stars. They would have a radius of only ten miles or so and a density of hundreds of millions of tons per cubic inch. At the time they were first predicted, there was no way that neutron stars could be observed.

And since there are forces that do not obey the symmetry T, it follows that as the universe expands, these forces could cause more antielectrons to turn into quarks than electrons into antiquarks. Then, as the universe expanded and cooled, the antiquarks would annihilate with the quarks, but since there would be more quarks than antiquarks, a small excess of quarks would remain. It is these that make up the matter we see today and out of which we ourselves are made. Thus our very existence could be regarded as a confirmation of grand unified theories, though a qualitative one only; the uncertainties are such that one cannot predict the numbers of quarks that will be left after the annihilation, or even whether it would be quarks or antiquarks that would remain.

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A brief history of time : from the big bang to black holes by S W Hawking


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